Your partner in independent health research, socio-economic analyses and environmental economics

Institute of Applied Economics and Health Research ApS (ApEHR) is an independent organization specialised in:

  • Epidemiology studies, Registry research (real life data), PASS studies, Health Technology Assessments and outcome research
  • Patient reported outcomes measurement and Quality of Life studies (PROM/QoL) 
  • Economic, health economics and societal impact analyses of business and policy

We bring intellectual integrity, academic rigor, and a creative approach to developing solutions to our clients' scientific, financial, medical or environmental challenges.

  • We conduct studies throughout the life-cycle of a product
  • We access real life data from registries in the Nordic region to analyse clinical practise
  • We apply scientific tools to describe the dynamic development of diseases  
  • We demonstrate how industries can create shared value and affect society through socio-economic impact models
  • We offer a huge network within epidemiology, economics, health research, clinical practise, QoL, PROMs and the pharmaceutical industry 


April 2018

New study: Many patients go for years without seeing a sclerosis doctor


March 2018

It is a good investment to prevent the development of lifestyle diseases such as diabetes


September 2017

Register studies of diabetes treatment arouse method discussions


June 2017

Danish registry studies are in worldclass - but threatened


May 2017

Annual Meeting of the Scandinavian Society for the Study of Diabetes

Prof. Anders Green gave an invited presentation on the epidemiological results from the Diabetes Impact Study in connection with the Annual Meeting of the Scandinavian Society for the Study of Diabetes, held May 19-21 in Nyborg(DK). 


February 2017

Benchmarking II

ApEHR has produced a report on behalf on the Danish Multidisciplinary Cancer Groups (DMCG) and the Danish Clinical Registries (RKKP, Regionernes Kliniske Kvalitets-udviklingsprogram) with an analysis of survival over the period 1995-2014 for five major cancer forms in Denmark. The report has now been published and can be found by following the link.

Benchmarking II_Report
Benchmarking II_Report-appendix

Real life treatment patterns and outcomes in advanced Melanoma patients in Italy and Sweden: The development of a Multi Country Database

This pilot study aims to create an international data platform for real world data on malignant melanoma treatment which can be used in clinical and epidemiological studies to systematically observe and describe patient treatment processes and outcomes. Findings from this pilot study are presented in the poster.



January 2017

UTURN - a life without pills

The program UTURN - a life without pills on DR1 (Danish national television), is a part of a research project at Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen, which examines wheter an intensive life style intervention in diabetes patients can reduce patients' need for pharmaceutical treatment for diabetes. Camilla Sorts from ApEHR explains in this program the socio-economical cost of diabetes and estimates the cost effectiveness of the intervention. 

Link to the program 1:9

December 2016

Staying in good health adds economic value to our societies

In collaboration, Dr. Hans Martens and APEHR have completed a blog discussing the challenge of chronic disease for Europe's health systems.

Link to the blog

October 2016

ApEHR in the Danish media: New study trend boosts growing business

Studies on how medicine works in the real world are being used to a higher degree by companies. Even though, the companies want to have data in their own hands, there is a tendency that these types of studies will be requested to a higher extent in the future, says the director general of the Danish Medicines Agency.

Link to publication (In Danish)

June 2016

Status of the diabetes situation in Denmark: social inequality in diabetes morbidity

PhD and M.Sc. Camilla Sortsø gives a status on the diabetes morbidity in Denmark and how social inequality plays an important role in the Danish program "En syg forskel" (red. An ill difference). The program is about how social conditions is important in relation to children with chronic diseases as diabetes and cancer.

Link to program

May 2016

Decomposing Inequality in Diabetes Patients’ Morbidity Patterns, Survival and Health Care Usage in Denmark

In collaboration, APEHR and the Centre of Health Economics Research (COHERE) have completed a discussion paper to quantify inequality in diabetes morbidity patterns, survival and health care service usage and understand determinants of these inequalities in relation to socio-demographic and clinical morbidity factors.

Link to publication

February 2016

Different patterns of Finasteride use in males with prostate hyperplasia across Nordic countries

The Nordic countries Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden have many cross-national similarities regarding political systems and universal tax-financed healthcare systems with full population coverage, but different utilization patterns of Finansteride have been observed in a new study. 

Link to publication

November 2015

Horizon2020 Info Day on Smart Cities & Communities

ApEHR participated in Horizon2020 Info Day on Smart Cities & Communities. ApEHR can offer its expertise in Innovative Business models and socio-economic-health impact assessment as partner in Lighthouse projects. For further information please follow this link.

October 2015

The Diabetes Impact Study in the Danish media: Every 10th Dane will have Diabetes in 10 Years

The newest publication of the Diabetes Impact Study reveals the dramatic forecasts of the diabetes epidemic. Today, 380,000 Danes have diabetes and this number will increase to 650,000 in 2015 and further 1.2 million people in 2040 according to the forecasts. The costs of diabetes i Denmark amounts up to almost 32 billion DKK every year, where the biggest cost is the productivity loss which amounts up to more than 13 billion DKK.
For further interest in the media coverage, please follow the links below. You can also read the scientific forecast publication in PDF form below.

Link to media coverage: BT & Berlingske
Link to publication

August 2015

Prensentation of Diabetes Impact Study Results on August 20th 2015

On August 20th 2015, APEHR presented the results of the Diabetes Impact Study 2013 together with the Danish Diabetes Association at a press conference. Among other interesting findings, the study showed that the diabetes-related costs of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in Denmark were 31.8 billion DKK/4.8 billion EUR in 2011, furthermore, the attributable costs of complication impacts are increasing significantly and a there is a great productivity loss despite a patient composition with many elderly patients. These results accounts only for the Danish diabetes population, but globally the diabetes situation is most possibly even more critical.

 Prof. Anders Green presenting the results of the Diabetes Impact Study at the press conference on August 20th 2015.
Photo: Claus Bjørn Larsen.

July 2015

The Diabetes Impact Study: Incidence, morbidity, mortality, and prevalence of diabetes in Denmark

In cooperation wih the University of Southern Denmark, APEHR has just published an article as part of the Danish Diabetes Impact Study 2013, where we present trends in the incidence, morbidity, mortality, and prevalence of diabetes in Denmark for the period 2000 through 2011.

Link to publication

January 2015

Real World Evidence: Clinical evidence - from the real world

With the Danish parliament in front, Denmark is preparing on becoming the internationally leading country in register- and database research within the health field. Professor and epidemiological scientist, Anders Green, is one of the architects behind the standardized platform on the future clinical cancer databases and tells his perspective on new ways within cancer treatment in Magasinet Perspektiv & debat by Roche (January 2015, no. 19).
Link to publication

December 2014

Validation of the Danish National Diabetes Register

The Danish National Diabetes Register (NDR) was established in 2006 and builds on data from Danish health registers. We validated the content of NDR, using full information from the NDR and data from the literature.
Link to publication


Prof. Anders Green teaches and speaks at several seminars on cancer, epidemiology, health economics and diabetes

Prof. Anders Green and the APEHR team have been invited to teach and speak at different seminars on relevant health topics as epidemiology as a platform for health economics research, costs of diabetes and experiences of cancer in Denmark. 

Sortsø, C: "Societal Costs of Diabetes". International Health Conference. Oxford, June 25-27th 2015. Presentation

"The Changing Epidemiology of Diabetes in Denmark: Results from the Diabetes Impact Study 2013". European Diabetes Epidemiology Group EDEG. Chantilly, April 25-27th 2015. Presentation

”Experiences from the Danish National Clinical Cancer Database”. Key Symposium on Quality Registers in Medicine, arrangered by Karolinska Institute andJournal of Internal Medicine, Karolinska Institutet. Stockholm, December 8-9th 2014.

”Multinationale studier i farmako-epidemiologisk forskning. Hvorfor – og hvorfor ikke?” Dansk Selskab for Farmakoepidemiologi, Årsmøde, København, October 9th 2014.

”Epidemiological modelling as platform for health economics research – illustrated with Danish registry data on diabetes mellitus”. Forskningsdag arrangeret af Health Economics Research Centre (HERC), Nuffield Department of Public Health, University of Oxford, May 22nd 2014. (Requested).

”Epidemiological modelling applied to health economics - illustrated with data on diabetes and lung cancer”, arrangeret af Center for Health Economics at Gothenburg University (CHEGU) i samarbejde med Akademistatistik og Registercentrum. Göteborg, April 28th 2014. (Requested).

 ”Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) in Denmark: Clinical epidemiological characteristics”. OPEN IBD-seminar, Odense, November 20th 2014.

 “Health Economics; Costs of Diabetes: The Diabetes Impact Study 2013”. Diabetes Academy, Helsingør, November 12th 2014. (Requested).

June 2014

TænkeTanken at the People's Meeting "Folkemødet 2014" on Bornholm

Prof. Anders Green shares his views on the future's diabetes strategy on the 12th of June 2014, 15.00-17.00. 
Link to official programme

March 2014

Prof. Anders Green speaks at the 2014 Cancer Conference in Copenhagen

On the 6th of March 2014 The Danish Cancer Society and The Danish Multipisciplinary Cancer groups - hosted a conference to discuss the increasing number of cancer patients which is projected towards 2025.  Is the healthcare system geared and ready for them? The healthcare system will be challenged in terms of resources in diagnoses, treatment, rehabilitation and palliation. 

Link to Prof. Green's presentation

December 2013

The cancer tsunami in Denmark

The December issue of Perspektiv og Debat puts spotlight on cancer treatment and the expected cancer tsunami in Denmark with analyses on the underlying reasons by Prof. Anders Green from ApEHR and The Danish Cancer Society. 
Link to Perspektiv og Debat

November 2013

The prospects of Real Word Data

Prof. Anders Green speaks about generation of Real Word Data in lung cancer using databases and registry research in Denmark at a cancer conference on 21st November 2013 organised by Dagens Medicin in Copenhagen. 

Link to Prof. Green's presentation

June 2013

Diabetes Impact Study 2013

The Danish Diabetes Association (DDA) has initiated an analysis of diabetes related costs in Denmark. To organize and implement the study we collaborate with Institute of Applied Economics and Health Research (ApEHR) and the Centre of Health Economics Research (COHERE), Southern University of Denmark.The study is financially supported by a wide range of commercial companies.


Diabetes is a huge challenge with more than 300.000 Danes having the diagnosis, a number which has doubled during the last ten years and is expected to double again to 600.000 during the following ten years. The economic burden of the disease is huge and will also increase.
The project will build on results from the study: “Socio Economic Impact of Diabetes in Denmark 2006” presented at “Diabetestinget 2008” and originally outlined on data from 2001. ApEHR will together with COHERE update and develop a Danish Epidemiological Diabetes Model as a framework to estimate the return of gained life years and reduced costs on investment in diabetes prevention and treatment.

Since 2001, the available data has improved through the establishment of the National Diabetes Register. At the same time changes in diabetes diagnosis, mortality and disease patterns make it relevant to establish new updated epidemiological profiles and trends together with economic analyzes. These updated estimates are a necessary platform for health economic evaluations of both prevention and treatment in diabetes. This study is a population-based register study that applies a new set of comprehensive data from the national health registers and from Statistics Denmark combined with cost estimates on diabetes patients' resource in the primary and secondary health care sectors.

Study setup and governance
Danish Diabetes Association is the overall Project Coordinator 
ApEHR is the Project Owner 
- A
pEHR and COHERE are the Scientific Investigators 
Supporters include Astra Zeneca/BMS, Bayer, MSD, Novo Nordisk Scandinavia, and Sanofi 
- A steering committee consists of representatives from DDA, ApEHR and COHERE
A reference group consists of the steering committee and representatives from each supporter

DDA and each supporter have a written agreement which will be present at The cooperation of the project is guaranteed its independence by the DDA’s ethical guidelines which are part of the written agreements.

The main deliverables are focused on epidemiology, health economics, socio-economics and forecasts.

Incidence, mortality and prevalence of diabetes by complication group
Explanations behind the increasing prevalence
Forecast models of diabetes prevalence

Attributable cost in the health care sector
Attributable cost in hospital 
Attributable cost in general practice 
Cost for diabetes specific treatments at specialist care level 
Attributable cost for medicines 
Attributable cost given complication status

Socioeconomic status and attributable cost in the health care sector 
Attributable cost of diabetes patients in hospital, general practice and for medicines given
  socioeconomic status (proxy: educational level and income level)

Socioeconomic status and epidemiology
- Incidence risk, prevalence risk and mortality risk given socioeconomic status 
  (proxy: educational level and income level)

Health care costs due to diabetes given different preventive and treatment scenarios
Diabetes implications for inequality in health given different preventive and treatment scenarios

The study is expected to be completed mid 2014 and a newsletter will be issued occasionally until then.
For more information please contact Morten Jakobsen,